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Graphite Electrodes a Current Industry Overview for EAF Steel Producers. 
                                    – Jamie Hansen

Executive Summary
The recent world shortage of Graphite Electrodes has been caused by a perfect storm of unexpected events that has the following contributing factors:

 •  Graphite Electrode plants were closed due to unsustainable market conditions and poor financial results since 2014. These closures reduced world graphite electrode capacity by around 20%.

 •  In Q4 2016, China began new environmental enforcement that was rapid and extreme.


These environmental measures have had the following consequences in 2017:

 •  A rapid shift in the Lithium Ion battery manufacturing industry is favoring Synthetic Graphite over Natural Graphite as the preferred raw material for Li-Ion battery anodes. This shift is creating competition for critical raw materials, namely Petroleum Needle Coke, that has in the past been almost exclusively dedicated to graphite electrode production.  This component is already consuming over 10% of the world supply of Petroleum NC and has potential to rise much higher.

The above factors have created a global Graphite Electrode shortage of roughly 10-20% of supply vs demand. This situation is likely to continue for at least the next several years. Prudent EAF Steelmakers are adopting a commercial and technical strategy to ensure that their graphite electrode supply needs are secure for the next several years.

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We assist you in creating smart connected steel operations by connecting your people, processes, data, and automation (IIOT). Below are definitions of some of the more common terms used. Steel Industry 4.0 impacts melt shop and rolling mill processes with cyber-physical systems, digitally enabled processes and data analytics.

IIoT platform

A platform is a group of technologies that are used as a base upon which other applications, processes or technologies are developed.




Industrial Internet of Things – The various sets of hardware pieces that work together through the internet of things connectivity to help enhance manufacturing and industrial processes. These include sensors, devices, and machines that contribute to physical business processes in industrial settings.

Cloud computing

The practice of using a network of remote servers hosted on the Internet to store, manage, and process data, rather than a local server or a personal computer.



Digital Twin

Digital twin refers to adigital replica of physical assets, processes, and systems that can be used for various purposes. Thedigital representation provides both the elements and the dynamics of how an Internet of Things device operates and lives throughout its life cycle.

Edge/Fog computing

Also known asfog networking or fogging, is a decentralizedcomputing infrastructure in which data, compute, storage and applications are distributed in the most logical, efficient place between the data source and the cloud.